Review the “Trauma/PTSD Studies Theory” reading we previously applied to analysis and interpretation of Kokoro. In it, you will find the following quotation on page 4: “The core issue in trauma is reality. So, although the reality of extraordinary events is at the core of PTSD, the meaning that victims attach to these events is as fundamental as the trauma itself . . The core issue is the inability to integrate the reality [and significance] of particular experiences, and the resulting repetitive replaying of the trauma in images, behaviors, feelings, physiological states, and interpersonal relationships. Thus, in dealing with traumatized people [and their narratives] it is critical to examine where they have become ‘stuck’ and around which specific traumatic event(s) they have built their secondary psychic elaborations [=their psychological defense mechanisms/fantasies].”

With this in mind, write 1-2 double-spaced pages regarding the following questions: To what extent is Tamura able to constitute, work through and come to terms with his traumatic battlefield experience? What particular aspects of his trauma experience does he succeed in reconstructing narratively? Where does he get “stuck”? Which issues or aspects of his traumatic experience does he have the most difficulty constituting, sincerely confronting, acknowledging, working through and coming to terms with?


Ōoka Shōhei, Nobi (Fires on the Plain, 1952)